leopard in snowLeopard,  Panthera pardus

Legal Status: Leopards living in the southern half of Africa are listed as Threatened under the U.S. Endangered Species Act.  All other populations in Africa as well as the Middle East and Asia are listed as Endangered.  The entire species is regulated in international commerce by CITES as an Appendix I species.  As a species, IUCN considers the leopard Vulnerable although many individual subspecies or populations possess much higher categories of threat.


Description: Among felids, leopards are best described as spotted, medium-sized members of the Pantherinae, the subfamily which includes all “roaring” cats: lions, tigers, jaguars and leopards, as well as clouded leopards, snow leopards and marbled cats.  Typically leopard markings consist of solid spots, or clusters of spots called rosettes.  In certain parts of their range, particularly southern Asia (India to Malaysia and the island of Java), black or melanistic color phases also occur, although at close range, markings can still be seen.  On Java, the majority of individuals are black.


The base color of leopards varies widely across their wide range, changing from yellow or orangish to tan or gray.  In Africa alone, the following trends of coloration may be observed: 1) savannah leopards-rufous to ochraceous in color; (2) desert leopards-pale cream to yellow-brown in color, with those from cooler regions being more gray; (3) rain forest leopards -dark, deep gold in color; (4) high mountain leopards- even darker in color.  The same is true for variation in their patterns, and is true as well as in other regions.  These two primary factors, coupled with hair length and body size, are the principal reason some taxonomists have split this species into many, often invalid, subspecies.  Overall leopards, in the case of males, average 150 lb (68 kg) but in India and South Africa, individuals as large as 200 lb (91 kg) are reported.  On the average, leopard from populations from Turkey, Iran and Afghanistan are by far the largest, males routinely reaching 200 lb.  Although up to 27 subspecies are still recognized by some specialists, others have pared this number down to as few as eight; taxonomic research is still ongoing.


Range: The leopard, or panther as it is called in some parts of Asia, is the most widespread member of the Family Felidae, if not the entire Order Carnivora.  Even today leopards can still be found from the southern cape mountains of South Africa throughout most countries of Africa south of the Sahara, across the Middle East to Southeast Asia and Java as well as northward to the Russian Far East.  Leopards are absent from Sumatra, perhaps because of the presence of tigers and six other species of felids, and from Borneo, probably because of the absence of a large ungulate prey base.  More recently they have been extirpated in all North African countries except Morocco.  Overall, leopards are most common in east, central and southern Africa and rare elsewhere.

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Habitat: In broad terms, leopards are among the most adaptable of any felid and may be found in almost any habitat within their range.  In sub-Saharan African, leopards are found in all habitats with an annual rainfall above 50 mm and can penetrate areas with less than this amount of rainfall along river courses.  Of all African cats, the leopard is the only species that occupies both rain forest and arid desert habitats.  Leopards range exceptionally up to 5,700 m where a carcass was discovered on the rim of Mt. Kilimanjaro, and are abundant on the highest slopes of the Ruwenzori and Virunga volcanoes.  Most importantly, they continue to occur in well-populated areas such as western Kenya's extensively cultivated districts with more than 150 persons/km2, little natural habitat and prey, and where 20 years ago they had been considered extirpated.


In North Africa and the Middle East, leopards are believed to be absent from the true desert of the central Arabian peninsula although they are still found near the Dead Sea where annual rainfall is less than a half an inch (50 mm).  Forest and Mediterranean scrub are also suitable habitats for the species in northwest Africa, Iran and the Caucasus.  Throughout the region, they are more confined to the more remote montane and rugged foothill areas, ranging up to 5900 ft (1,800 m) in Turkmenistan, 9,800 ft (3,000 m) in Morocco, 8550 ft (2,600 m) in Saudi Arabia and 10,580 ft (3,200 m) in Iran.


In Asia, a broad spectrum of environments are present and leopards occur in most of them.  On the Indian subcontinent they are found throughout the region with the exception of deserts and the Sunderbans mangroves.  The also live on, if not in, the outskirts of large cities like Islamabad and Bombay, and are quite common in the hill regions of India.  They also occur throughout most of China and in the Himalayas, where they are sympatric with snow leopards up to 17,000 ft (5,200 m) although they more commonly live below the tree line.  In Indonesia, leopards are still found on Java, one of the world's most densely populated areas in the world.  In the Russian Far East, leopards prefer regions of low snowfall vegetated by oaks and pines.


Diet: Catholic in diet preferences, leopard can subsist on an extremely wide range of prey but when available, show a marked preference for small to medium-sized ungulates such as small antelopes and gazelles, wild goats and sheep, deer, pigs and domestic livestock.  In deserts or regions depauparate in ungulate prey, they seem to survive satisfactorily on birds and reptiles, hyraxes, baboons, monkeys and domestic dogs.  As a result of their diverse palate, leopards survive in surprisingly close proximity to humans.


Social Organization: Like most other cats, leopards are solitary predators that live within an exclusive territory.  Those of males are larger and often overlap those of several females.  Female leopards are mature at three years of age and after a gestation of 90 days, give birth to one to three young.  Larger litters are rare.  In nature, leopards probably reach 10 years of age; in captivity few exceed 20 years.   


Threats to Survival: Although the leopard appears tolerant of habitat modification and occurs in the vicinity of settled areas, density is significantly reduced when compared to occurrence in natural habitat.  In Africa and tropical Asia, the fur trade was a major threat to the leopard in some areas during the 1960s and 1970s but that threat has collapsed in the face of changing public opinion and the imposition of international trade controls under CITES.  In Africa today, leopards remain particularly vulnerable to the dispersal of poison baits, usually in response to livestock depredation.  In the southern half of Africa, limited numbers are legally taken as trophies by international sportsmen but those populations appear resilient to those losses and overall African populations are probably the most robust of any continent's.


In Morocco and the Middle East, many populations have become quite small and are increasingly vulnerable to disruption of healthy population dynamics.  Sex ratios have become skewed in some Israeli populations, parent/offspring breedings have been documented because of a lack of natural recruitment and adult males occasionally prey on their own young, all factors further pushing some populations into oblivion.  The natural ungulate prey base throughout the region has in many places been severely reduced, thus accounting for at least in part the leopard's widespread reputation as a killer of domestic livestock.  Although protected officially, leopards continue to be killed opportunistically and there are numerous reports of local people going to extraordinary lengths to kill leopards reported in their vicinity, organizing hunting parties that do not return until the leopard is found and killed.


In Asia, leopards are threatened in many areas by a depleted wild ungulate prey base.  They are, in turn, persecuted when they turn to livestock, and domestic stock has been found to be a major component of leopard diets outside protected areas.  Illegal commercial hunting for pelts and for bones for traditional Asian medicines is widespread in the region.  While habitat loss is still a significant threat, the leopard does well in secondary growth if not otherwise persecuted.  In the Russian Far East, Amur leopards are additionally threatened by the small size of the population: father-daughter and sibling matings have been observed on two occasions.  Possibly linked to this then is the fact that the litter size observed in this population during winter seems to have dropped between 1973 and 1991 from 1.75 to 1.0 young, an event that may be linked to genetic factors such as declining fertility or merely demographic fluctuation.


Zoo Programs: In 1974, international studbooks were initiated for four subspecies of Asian leopards.  At that time, most other leopards held by zoos worldwide were of unknown ancestry, or were presumed to be from populations of Africa or India.  As a result, it was common, at least during the 1960’s to the 80’s, for some zoos to “collect” rare leopards.  In a few instances, some zoos possessed up to three subspecies of studbook-kept leopards in numbers totaling 20 animals.  In 1999, a fifth subspecies of leopard was added to the international studbook program. Today, most zoos worldwide maintain but a single race of leopard, often selecting one on the advice of the region’s Felid Taxon Advisory Group.


Amur Leopard, Panthera pardus orientalis

Amur leopards, called Far Eastern leopards in Russia, are one of the rarest subspecies in nature.  Easily identified by their very large, thickly bordered circular markings as well as rosettes, Amur leopards have extremely long hair in response to the cold climate they inhabit.  Originally found in Manchuria, the Korean peninsula and the Primorski Province of the Russian Far East, the last recorded specimen in South Korea was captured in 1969.  Recent field studies the Russian Far East (2001) suggest a population of 40 animals, and similar studies in North Korea (1998) suggest no more than 10 leopards remain there.  The population living in two adjacent provinces of China numbers only 10 to 15 more.  All of the Russian population is now found south of Lake Khanka.  The IUCN status of this race is Critically Endangered.

       As of July, 2002, the captive population worldwide was 222 leopards.   As a result of cage-space surveys in North America, it has become apparent that there is only space for one race of leopard in that region, given the demographic spatial requirements (150+ “spaces”) of managing a large carnivore of this type.  Because the present gene pool of the North American managed population is only 11, coupled with the fact that five additional founders are present in European zoos and more can become potentially available in the future, this race of leopard is the only one being recommended by the AZA Felid TAG for maintenance by North American zoos and private collections. In July, 2002, there were 83 individuals in the PMP population but more spaces are becoming available as other leopards and other medium-sized species of felids are replaced through attrition. In Europe, an EEP has been in place since 1993 and another 139 Amur leopards are maintained, most of which are part of the EEP.  Since late 1998, the EEP has been co-coordinated by staff of the London and Moscow Zoos.  In the future, a joint EAZA/AZA management program will be developed to make the best use of zoo spaces in North America, Europe and Russia.   Living founders are still present in European collections, all acquired from the North Korean population.  Previous founders were primarily from Russia and from one additional, over-represented founder who now appears to be representative of the North Chinese population.  In the coming years global management programs for Amur leopards will strive to reduce the genetic percentage of this founder from China while increasing the proportion of founders from Russia and North Korea.



     International Rare Leopard Studbook Keeper,


     Ms. Olivia Walter

     The Zoological Society of London

     Regent's Park

     London NW1 4RY, England

     E-mail: conservation.fedzoo@zsl.net


     North American Regional Studbook Keeper/

     Chair, Population Management Plan

     Ms. Martha Caron

     Minnesota Zoo

     13000 Zoo Boulevard

     Apple Valley, MN 55124-8299

     Ph (952)-431-9206

     Fax (952-431-9452

     Email: martha.caron@state.mn.us


     Amur Leopard In situ Program Manager

     Ron Tilson

     Minnesota Zoo

     13000 Zoo Boulevard

     Apple Valley, MN 55124-8299

     Ph (952)-431-9267

     Fax (952-431-9452

     Email: ron.tilson@state.mn.us


     Amur Leopard EEP Co-chairs,

     Sarah Christie

     The Zoological Society of London

     Regent's Park

     London NW1 4RY, England

     E-mail: christie.sarah@zsl.org


     Tanya Arzanhova

     Moscow Zoological Park

     1, Bolshaya Gruzinskaya St.

     Moscow 123242, Russia

     E-mail: tanya@zoopark.msk.su


     Wild Status

     Dr. John Seidensticker

     National Zoological Park

     Washington, DC 20008

     Ph: (202) 673-4749

     E-mail: jseidensticker@nzp.si.edu


     Dr. Dale Miquelle

     c/o Wildlife Conservation Society

     2300 Southern Blvd

     Bronx, NY  10460

     E-mail: dalemiq@vlad.ru


     Chris Stuart

     POB 96

     African Carnivore Research

     POB 6

     Loxton 6985

     South Africa